Kellers Motivational Model

From IS Theory
Jump to: navigation, search
This site is sponsored by the University of Colorado

Keller's ARCS Motivational Model


ARCS stands for: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction

Alternate name(s)

Keller's ARCS Theory of Motivation

Main construct(s)/factor(s)

Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction

Concise description of theory

Originally designed to study how to effectively motivate learning. This theory is grounded in the Expectancy-value theory which purports that perceived success (expectancy) and perceived satisfaction of personal needs (value) drive motivation of an individual to perform an activity. Keller's ARCS Model believes that people will engage in an activity if they believe they will succeed at it and it will satisfy their personal needs. It consists of four factors that create and maintain motivation for learning in people and also strategies to achieve them.

Attention - Need for stimulation & variety - curiosity, boredom, arousal
Relevance - Desire to satisfy basic motives - needs, motives, attractions
Confidence - Desire to feel competent and in control - attributions, expectancies, self-efficacy
Satisfaction - Desire to feel good about oneself - intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, equity

Modified from: [,,]

Diagram/schematic of theory

Arcs constructs.jpg


Originating author(s)

John M. Keller (1979)

Seminal articles

Merrill, M. D. (1999). Instructional Transaction Theory (ITT): Instructional Design Based on Knowledge Objects. Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, Vol. II. (pp. 397-424). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Keller, J. M., & Suzaki, K. (1988). Use of the ARCS Motivation Model in Courseware Design. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Instructional Designs for Microcomputer Courseware. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Originating area

Effective motivation of learning, Learning theory

IS articles that use the theory

Weibell, C. J. (2011). Principles of learning: A conceptual framework for domain-specific theories of learning. Available at [1]

Luo, M. M., Chea, S., & Chen, J.-S. (2011). Web-based information service adoption: A comparison of the motivational model and the uses and gratifications theory. Decision Support Systems, 51(1), 21-30. Elsevier B.V.

Links from this theory to other theories

Expectancy value theory

External links

[2], Edu Wiki entry on Kellers Motivational Model
[3], Principles of Learning

Original Contributor(s)

Oluyomi Olufemi Kabiawu

Please feel free to make modifications to this site. In order to do so, you must register.

Return to Theories Used in IS Research