Main dependent construct(s)/factor(s)
a mental state of complete absorption
Main independent construct(s)/factor(s)
situation, activity, high level of challenge, focused attention, high level of skill
Concise description of theory
a mental state of complete absorption with the activity at hand, a feeling of total engagement and immersion, a harmonious blend of high level of challenge, focused attention and high level of skill
Diagram/schematic of theory
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Plan and Intrinsic Rewards. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15(3), 41-63.
Montgomery, H., Sharafi, P., & Hedman, L. R. (2004). Engaging in Activities Involving Information Technology: Dimensions, Modes, and Flow. Human Factors, 46(2), 334-348.
Qiu, L., & Benbasat, I. (2005). An Investigation into the Effects of Text-to-Speech Voice and 3D Avatars on the Perception of Presence and Flow of Live Help in Electronic Commerce. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 12(4), 329–355.
Hoffman, D. L. and T. P. Novak (2009). "Flow Online: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects." Journal of Interactive Marketing 23(1): 23-34.
Level of analysis
IS articles that use the theory
Agarwal, R., & Karahanna, E. (2000). Time Flies When You’re Having Fun: Cognitive Absorption and Beliefs About Information Technology Usage. MIS Quarterly, 24(4), 665-694.
Koufaris, M. (2002). Applying the Technology Acceptance Model and Flow Theory to Online Consumer Behavior. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 205-223.
Hsu, C.-L. and H.-P. Lu (2003). "Why Do People Play On-Line Games? An Extended TAM with Social Influences and Flow Experience." Information and Management 41(7): 853–868.
Kamis, A., Koufaris, M., & Stern, T. (2008). Using an Attribute-Based DSS for User-Customized Products Online: An Experimental Investigation. MIS Quarterly, 32(1), 159-177.
Links from this theory to other theories
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